The Paran (Paranatellona) and Sun Calanders

THE EGYPTIAN CALENDAR

The civil calendar that the ancient Egyptians used was 365 days long and although they knew that this was Approx. 6 hours too short, it was against religious practices to add a leap year every four years. In 238 BC , the Greek Ptolemaic rulers, (from a general in Alexander the Great’s army), saw that the Egyptian Calendar was nearly an accurate measure of the year, and thus decreed that every 4th year should be 366 days long, however the general populace didn’t accept the ruling due to superstition, hence it was put on hold till the introduction of the Julian Calendar on 1st January 0045 BC and the Alexandrian Calendar by Octavian (Augustus), in 26/25 BC.

Most general readers think that the heliacal rising of Sirius denoted the start of every year in the Egyptian Calendar, which simply wasn’t the case, as it was a “wandering year”, and held in place by their knowledge, and complicated adjustments involving the Moon etc. The ancient Egyptians knew that Sirius would rise with the Sun in the same location after 1460 years, a period called a “Sothic Cycle”, and very like a Millennium to them. Obviously in dealing with chronology and dates that have meaning to us with our calendar, this is very difficult as the original location of the first Heliacal rising of Sirius in the Egyptian calendar is often debated by historians and archaeologists, and measurements between Sirius (Isis) and the Sun (Ra), the basis of religion changed from the early years of the calendar, this was just purely upon what you could see, an example would be how we read Hesiod in Work and Days…”But when Orion and Sirius are come into mid-heaven, and rosy-fingered Dawn see’s Arcturus, then cut off the grape clusters, Perses, and bring them home…the clue is “Rosy-Fingered Dawn”, early star alignments wasn’t made by a cosmic rising Sun, being half way on the horizon in the East, mainly because it was too bright to see the stars at that point, they were calculating with the Sun below the horizon, when a slight colour of orange appears in the East, however by 0045 BC, mathematics had advanced, IT WAS POSSIBLE TO CHART THE SUN BEING HALF WAY ON THE HORIZON, and although you wouldn’t see Sirius in the night sky at that point as it was too bright, they probably knew that Sirius was rising too, this is a Cosmic Alignment!

Obviously the Julian Calendar started on 1st January 0045 BC, the Sothic Cycle wasn’t used as it had a leap year, this means for several centuries after, if an alignment had been put into the Julian Calendar, we would see it, until it was moved on by precession astronomy, defining Paranatellona can be seen on below link:-
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10705808

We now see that how early humans valued the stars can be different to when mathematical skills kick in, some historians have conceded to the Roman writer Censorinus, that wrote that the Egyptian New Year fell on July 20th in the Julian Calendar in 139 AD, which was a heliacal rising of Sirius in Egypt, but this is by the eye, not cosmic alignment, the Egyptian priests liked the old ways that also didn’t involve leap years, however some say it is possible to calculate possible origin date of the Egyptian Calendar by using the Sothic Cycle, i find it dubious, but previous dates have been mentioned, like 2,782 BC and 4,242 BC.

This cycle was first noticed by Eduard Meyer in 1904, who then combed known Egyptian inscriptions and written materials to find any mention of the calendar dates when Sirius rose with the Sun, he found six of them, on which much of the conventional chronology is based, other researchers find this method dubious, you must make up your own mind, this is difficult for me to comment, the much latter paran alignments that are cosmic are easier and involve the Sun being half way on horizon, any eye observation is liable of a differing set of values in ancient times!
The calendar of 365 days long started on “The First of Thoth”, and had five days added at the end of 12 months of 30 days, Osiris had his birthday in these five days at the end of the year, but it must be remembered not to compare with our Gregorian calendar too much and Christ’s birthday….our calendar ends in the Winter, the ancient Egyptian one ended in the Summer!

It has been argued that before the joining of Lower and Upper Egypt around 3,150 BC, the two countries developed their own calendars. In lower Egypt , the Winter Solstice was regarded as the birth place of their Sun god Ra, in Upper Egypt the year was measured as the time between the flooding of the Nile, which was important for farming communities living along the banks, where they noticed Sirius, the Isis star rising with the Sun.

THE ROMAN CALENDAR

The original Roman Calendar is thought to have been a lunar calendar, based on one of the Greek lunar calendars.  The ancient Greeks started the day from sunset to sunset, the Romans and Egyptians started the day at sunrise.  The ancient Roman calendar was closely linked to the science of the sky and gods, and Claudius Ptolemaeus, and was used throughout the life time of the democratic period in Rome.

Ptolemy’s teachings were based on those of Plato and Pythagoras, who thought that the Earth was the centre of the universe, and the Sun, Moon and planets all revolved around a stationary Earth at the centre of the cosmos.  The Romans divided the day into 24 hours, 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of the night, obviously this didn’t run from midnight, but sunrise to sunrise.

The Roman hour varied according to the season, during the Summer Solstice ,  around 21st June, when the period of daylight is longer than the night, each hour was 1 hour 16 minutes long in Britain, during the short days of the Winter Solstice, around 21st December, the daylight hour was shorter, being only 44 minutes long, within the Roman Empire the hour was adjusted according to the difference in daylight time, the exact hour of 60 minutes only happened around the Equinox’s, the Vernal Equinox around 21st March and the Autumnal Equinox  around 21st September, however these are Gregorian calendar settings, Sosigenes, the Julian Calendar specialist originally wanted the Winter Solstice to fall on 25th December.

We still retain 3 days from ancient Rome, being Dies Saturni, meaning day of Saturn and Saturday, Dies Lunae, become Moon Day and Monday and finally Dies Solis become SUNday, other days of the week become entwined with viking mythology and therefore harder to explain from the latin.  Like most of the ancient Mediterranean world, the Romans believed that each day of the week were ruled by a god, which related to the known planets being Saturn, Jupiter, Sun, Mars, Mercury and the Moon.

Apart from a Moon calendar not being accurate, the ancient Roman calendar was subject to political tinkering by the Roman Senate….no wonder Julius Caesar was looking for a “good calendar”, as he was a student of astronomy…..this leads us to “The Julian Calendar”.

SOSIGENES

There is little known about the architect of the Julian Calendar other than he was a student at the Great Library of Alexandria, and was an Alexandrian Greek like Cleopatra, but obviously he was an astronomer.  Some scholars say that Sosigenes is credited with a book on the orbit of Mercury, that suggests that he knew Mercury orbited the Sun, and wrote a book on revolving spheres, other scholars disagree as Encyclopedia Britannia says this was a different Sosigenes who lived during the end of the second century AD.

THE JULIAN CALENDAR

When Julius Caesar visited Egypt, Cleopatra VII discussed with him how the Egyptians set their time by the Sun rather than the Moon, and introduced him to the astronomer Sosigenes, he told Caesar about Cleopatra’s ancestor, Ptolemy III’s calendar where he had tried to impliment a leap year every 4 years, Caesar liked it, dropping the Roman months, and he and Cleopatra negotiated the fine details such as the date of New Year.  One reason why 1st January was adopted was from 0153 BC, the Roman Consuls had been elected to rule their regions on this date.

Pliny, the ancient Roman historian wrote something very curious about these times that is interesting to the research of this blog, “There were three main schools, the Chaldaeans, the Egyptians and the Greeks, and to these a fourth was added in our country by Caesar during his dictatorship, (Mystery School?), who with the assistance of the learned astronomer Sosigenes brought the separate years back into conformity with the course of the Sun”.  You may wonder if Caesar set up one of the Ancient religious mystery schools, that the Western Mystery Tradition is made up from, being  a gnosis of secret religious esoteric information included from the Hermetic secrets from Egypt to the Eleusian mysteries that originated in Greece.  These secret fraternies have existed up to the present times like the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

The Hopeless Roman Calendar was sick in Julius Caesar’s time, partly due to political tinkering, being truly out of synch with the seasons, so the year 0046 BC was made to be 445 days long, which was called the “The Year of Confusion”, the new Julian Calendar started on 1st January 0045 BC, the Julian year of 365 and a quarter days was too long by 11 minutes and 12 seconds, but this must have been known to Caesar and Sosigenes, perhaps they thought that this could be left to future generations to correct, as Hipparchus had calcalated that a leap year every 4 years would create a small error, over a hundred years before.    However the Julian Calendar was a stunning calcalation for the ancient world, it must be remembered that few owned a watch in the 20th Century that was accurate to 11 minutes in a year until the quartz watch was invented, and that was twenty centuries later!

We mustn’t inflict Cleopatra with the morality of the 21st century, from our standpoint we could say she was “a boil a bunny girl”, incest was standard in Egyptian royal circles, she did murder brothers and sisters to become Queen of Egypt, and she did play a deadly poker game with the most powerful empire in the world during her era and used sex to bring Julius Caesar and Mark Antony under her spell, but also we could say she was a patriot, and although being Greek, she knew many dialects, really did think she was Isis on Earth, and thought the gods of Egypt were only the true gods, so did she sneak Sirius/Isis into the New Year of the Julian Calendar?….the clue is the Romans and Egyptians used sunrise, but Cleopatra was Greek, we are joining concepts here as the Greeks used sunset as the start of the day, when superstition ruled Egyptian priests, they would have made New Year in the Summer months when only by eye Sirius could be seen when the Sun was below the horizon, but we must debate if Sosigenes could construct a calendar that was only 11 minutes out of being a true year, they must have known the horizons and how to place a “Cosmic Alignment”…..Greek style this would be the Sun half way on horizon setting as Sirius rises, even if this couldn’t be seen because the sky was too bright.    Greek style day start for 1st January 0045 BC would be 31st December 0046 BC at sunset, we must look at the Great Cities down the Nile, Luxor that then was Thebes, Memphis that is now under Cairo suburbs and Alexandria…..can we find an Isis/Sirius alignment that probably Cleopatra would have wanted, did she sneak in an Egyptian Goddess under Caesar’s nose in the Julian Calendar, as he used sunrise.

In order to understand the importance of what is being presented, please continue reading by clicking the link below.

Part II: Dispute with Calendars Explained

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